In Russian, the different treatment of animated nouns implies that their accusative (and that of the adjectives that qualify them) are formed identically to the genitive and not to the nominative. In the singular, this only applies to masculine nouns, but in the plural, it applies to all genders. See Russian declination. Related names in closely related languages are likely to have the same sex, as they tend to inherit the gender of the original word in the mother tongue. For example, in Romance languages, the words for «sun» are masculine and derive from the Latin masculine noun sol, while the words for «moon» are feminine and derived from the Latin feminine luna. (This contrasts with genders in German, where the sun «sun» is feminine and the moon «moon» is masculine, as well as in other Germanic languages.) However, there are exceptions to this principle. For example, the latte («milk») in Italian is male (just like French and Portuguese milk), while the Spanish leche is female and the Romanian lapte is neutral. Similarly, the word for «boot» is neutral in German (the boat), but the common gender in Swedish (in båt). In some languages, the gender of nouns can mainly be determined by physical (semantic) attributes, although there are some names whose gender is not assigned in this way (Corbett calls this «semantic rest»). [32] The speakers` worldview (e.B mythology) can influence the division of categories. [33] Related languages do not have to assign the same sex to a name: this shows that gender can vary in related languages. Conversely, unrelated languages that are in contact can influence how gender is assigned to a borrowed name, with the borrowed or tonic language determining the gender of the borrowed word. Nevertheless, even in Icelandic, the feminine is considered a little more pronounced than the masculine.

This usually means male or female, depending on the sex of the speaker (or gender in the sociological sense). For example, in Spanish, mujer («woman») is a woman, while hombre («man») is a man; These attributions are made solely on the basis of the semantically inherent sexual character of each name. [Citation needed] More unusual systems of grammatical gender can be found all over the world. Dyirbal, an Australian Aboriginal language, notoriously includes a gender category for «women, fire and dangerous things». Some languages have genders based on the physical forms of objects, and some languages have more than ten nominal classes. Although gender inflection can be used to construct nouns and nouns for people of different sexes in grammatical languages, this alone does not represent grammatical gender. Different words and names for men and women are also common in languages that do not have a grammatical gender system for nouns in general. English, for example, has feminine suffixes such as -ess (as in actress, waitress, etc.) and also distinguishes between male and female person names, as in the examples above. In some languages, gender is determined by strictly semantic criteria, but in other languages, semantic criteria only partially determine gender. In languages with a grammatical gender, each noun is assigned to one of the classes called genres, which form a closed set. Most of these languages usually have two to four different genera, but some are attested with up to 20. [2] [9] [10] In some languages, all sexual characteristics have been eroded over time (perhaps by deflection) in such a way that they are no longer recognizable.

Many German names, for example, do not indicate their gender by their meaning or form. In such cases, the gender of a name simply needs to be memorized, and the gender can be considered an integral part of any name if it is considered an entry in the speaker`s lexicon. (This is reflected in dictionaries, which usually indicate the gender of nominal keywords, if any.) Or someone said: The little cat was sitting on the carpet or the black dog on the street. Then we know what the cat and dog are talking about. It`s certainly «not a walk in the park» to learn a new language, but it can be done. In other cases, a word can be used interchangeably in several genres. For example, in Bulgarian, the word пу̀стош, (pustosh, «wilderness») can be either masculine (some form пу̀стоша, pustoshə) or feminine (some form пустошта̀, pustoshta) without change of meaning and without preference of use. In Norwegian, many names can be feminine or masculine, depending on the dialect, degree of formality or mood of the speaker/writer. Even the two written forms of the language have many names, the gender of which is optional. The choice of the male sex often appears more formal than the use of the feminine. [Citation needed] This could be due to the fact that before the creation of Norwegian nynorsk and Norwegian bokmål in the late 19th century, Norwegians wrote in Danish, which lost the female sex, so the use of the male sex (which corresponds exactly to the Danish common sex in the Conjugation in Norwegian Bokmål) seems more formal for modern Norwegians.

[Citation needed] Grammatical gender can be realized as an inflection and can be conditioned by other types of inflection, especially the flexion of numbers, where the singular-plural contrast can interact with the inflection of gender. Grammatical gender is juxtaposed with natural sex or naturalistic gender, in which nouns are classified in a way that corresponds to their actual qualities. Girls and boys are examples of naturalistic gender names. (In English, this is important because these words can be replaced by gendered pronouns like her and him.) Of these, Roll 2 is probably the most important in everyday use. [Citation needed] Gender-distinguished languages generally have fewer cases of ambiguity, such as pronominal references. In the English expression «a flowerbed in the garden that I maintain», only the context tells us whether the relative clause (which I keep) refers to the whole garden or only to the flower bed. In German, gender segregation prevents such ambiguity. The word for «(flower) parterre» (beets) is neutral, while the word for «garden» is male. Thus, when a neutral relative pronoun is used, the relative theorem refers to «lit,» and when a male pronoun is used, the relative theorem refers to «garden.» For this reason, gender-distinguished languages can often use pronouns where a noun should be repeated in English to avoid confusion. However, this does not help in cases where the words have the same grammatical sex.

(There are often several synonymous names of different grammatical genders to choose to avoid this.) Sometimes the gender of a word changes over time. For example, the modern Russian loan word виски (viski) «whiskey» was originally feminine,[40] then masculine,[41] and today it has become neutral. Other languages, e.B Serbo-Croatian, allow double-marked forms for number and gender. In these languages, each name has a specific gender, regardless of the number. For example, djeca «children» is feminine singularia tantum and vrata «door» is neutral pluralia tantum. .